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Navigating the FHA Loan Application Process

Written by
Wesley Mortgage
August 3, 2023
min read

An FHA loan is a mortgage that is insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). This means the FHA guarantees it, which reduces the creditor's risk and allows them to offer loans with lower credit score requirements and reduced down payments.

FHA loans are available to first-time homebuyers and those with less-than-perfect credit that may not qualify for a conventional mortgage.


FHA Loan Requirements

  • A down payment worth 3.5% of the purchase price.
  • A credit score of 580 or higher.
  • You must be able to afford the mortgage.
  • You must have a stable income.
  • No recent bankruptcies or foreclosures.
  • No outstanding debts that are more than 50% of your income.
  • You must be a U.S. citizen or permanent resident.

If you meet all of these requirements, you may qualify for an FHA home loan. 

Submitting the FHA Loan Application

To submit an FHA loan application, you will need the following documents:

  • Your most recent pay stubs
  • W-2 forms from the past two years
  • Bank statements from the past two months
  • Tax returns from the past two years
  • Proof of assets, such as a savings account statement or investment account statement
  • Proof of insurance
  • A completed FHA loan application

Once you have gathered all of the required documents, you can submit the application to a qualified lender. The lender will review your application. If approved, the lender will provide a loan estimate detailing the mortgage terms, such as the interest rate, the monthly payment, and the closing costs.

After you have reviewed the estimate and agreed to the terms, you will sign the documents and close.

Following are additional tips for submitting an FHA loan application:

  • Make sure that all of your documents are accurate and complete.
  • Expect to provide additional documentation if requested by the lender.
  • Be patient, as the loan process can take several weeks.
  • Ask questions if you have concerns.

Submitting an FHA loan application can be daunting, but the lender is there to help. By following the tips above, you can make the process easier and increase your chances of getting approved.

Approval Process for FHA Loans

  1. Apply for an FHA loan with a lender.
  2. Provide the required documentation, including your income, assets, and debts.
  3. The lender will order an appraisal of the property.
  4. The lender will underwrite your loan application.
  5. If the loan is approved, you will close on the property.

Additional details about each step in the process:

  1. To apply for an FHA loan, you will need to complete a loan application and provide the lender with the required documentation. This may include your tax returns, pay stubs, bank statements, and W-2 forms.
  2. The lender will request an appraisal to determine the value of the property and whether it meets FHA requirements.
  3. The lender will underwrite the loan application. This involves reviewing your income, assets, debts, and credit history to determine whether you qualify and what the interest rate will be.
  4. If the loan is approved, you will close on the property. This is when you will sign the final paperwork and take ownership.

The FHA loan approval process can take up to 45 days.

Closing on the FHA Loan

Closing is the final step in the home-buying process. It is when you sign all the paperwork and become the owner of your new home.

To close on an FHA loan, you will need to provide the following:

  • Proof of income
  • Proof of assets
  • Appraisal of the property
  • Title insurance
  • Mortgage insurance premium (MIP)
  • Closing costs

The closing costs for an FHA loan vary depending on the state and the lender. However, they range from 2-5% of the purchase price of the home.

Once you have all of the documents, meet with your lender. The closing will take place at the title company or the lender's office.

After you have signed the closing documentation, you will receive the keys to your new home.

Here are some tips for closing on an FHA loan:

  • Be prepared to provide all of the required documents.
  • Ask questions if you do not understand something.
  • Review the files before you sign them.
  • Get a copy of all the closing documents for your records.

Pros and Cons of an FHA Loan

Benefits of FHA loans:

  • Lower down payment requirements: FHA loans require a down payment of only 3.5%, compared to 5% or more for conventional loans.
  • Easier to qualify for: FHA loans have more lenient credit score requirements.
  • More flexible debt-to-income ratio: FHA loans allow a debt-to-income ratio of less than 43%.
  • Government-backed: Lenders are less likely to deny the loan.

Disadvantages of FHA loans:

  • Higher upfront fees: These include a mortgage insurance premium (MIP) of 1.75% of the loan amount, as well as an annual MIP of 0.85%.
  • Stricter credit score requirements: You'll need a credit score of at least 580 to qualify.
  • Lower loan limits: The maximum for an FHA loan in 2023 is $420,680 in most areas.
  • More stringent requirements: The property must meet certain standards to qualify.

FHA Loan Insurance

FHA mortgage insurance protects lenders against losses if a borrower defaults. It is required for all FHA loans, which are mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA).

FHA loan insurance premiums are often rolled into the mortgage. The amount of the premium depends on the loan amount and the borrower's credit score.

FHA loan insurance can be ideal for borrowers who have low credit scores or who have other factors considered a higher risk. It can also be a good option for borrowers looking to buy a home with a lower down payment.

Here are some of the benefits of FHA loan insurance:

  • It can help borrowers qualify for a mortgage even if they have low credit scores or other risk factors.
  • It can allow borrowers to make a lower down payment on a home.
  • It can protect lenders against losses if a borrower defaults on their loan.

Here are some of the drawbacks of FHA loan insurance:

  • It can increase the monthly mortgage payment.
  • It can make it more difficult to refinance or sell a home in the future.
  • It can be more expensive than other types of mortgage insurance.

Overall, FHA loan insurance can be a good option for borrowers who meet the eligibility requirements and who are comfortable with the potential drawbacks.

FHA Loan Refinancing Options

A streamline refinance 

The most common, which allows borrowers to refinance their existing FHA loan with a new FHA loan with lower interest rates and/or payments. Streamline refinances are easier to qualify for than other types of FHA loan refinances, as they do not require borrowers to provide proof of income or assets.

Cash-out refinance

Allows borrowers to borrow more money than what they owe on their mortgage. This can be helpful for borrowers who need to make home improvements, pay off debt, or cover other expenses. Cash-out refinances have higher interest rates than streamline refinances, as they are considered riskier.

Refinance an FHA loan into a conventional loan 

Conventional loans are not insured by the Federal Housing Administration, which means they have different eligibility requirements and terms. However, conventional loans have lower interest rates.

Borrowers who are considering refinancing their FHA loan should compare their options. They should also shop around for the best interest rate and terms.

​​Pros and Cons of FHA Loan Refinancing

Benefits of refinancing an FHA loan

  • A lower interest rate, which can save money on mortgage payments.
  • Shorten the term, which can save money on interest over the life of your loan.
  • Cash-out some equity in your home to use for other purposes, such as home improvements, debt consolidation, or education.

Risks of refinancing an FHA loan

  • You might pay closing costs, which can add to the upfront cost of the loan.
  • Mortgage payments may increase, depending on the terms of the new loan.
  • Additional documentation might be required, such as proof of income and assets.

If you are considering refinancing your FHA loan, weigh the benefits and risks to decide if it is appropriate.



If you are looking for a mortgage loan, an FHA loan may be a great option. They offer lower down payment requirements and are available to borrowers with less-than-perfect credit. 

If you are unsure if an FHA loan is appropriate, talk to a qualified mortgage lender, such as Wesley Mortgage, today. Our team of experienced loan professionals can help you understand the pros and cons and decide if an FHA mortgage is your best homeownership option.

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